Dear USA Cycling Members,
Your Board of Trustees met in Colorado Springs the last weekend in October to discuss and vote upon submitted legislation regarding road, track, and cyclocross rules for the 2007 year. Below you will find the new legislation items that were passed. Black text represents wording that has not changed. Strikeout text is wording that was removed, and red text is new wording. The rulebooks will be posted online shortly. The book is also going to print for the hard copies at the beginning of next week.
1 Junior gears
Staff Comment: This is a significant change in policy. As of 2007, juniors must ride their junior gears in all races, including elite races. There is still only one gear limit on the road, but a junior rider competing in the category 3 elite men, for example, will have to ride his restricted gears.
1J6. Junior Gears. The maximum chaingear ratio for Junior riders is based on age and discipline. Blocked gears will be allowed, except in National Championships. All tests for compliance (road and track) shall be done using the "roll-out method."
There is no restriction for cyclo-cross.
For road and track the limits are:
17-18: 7.93 meters (26')(52x14) unrestricted
15-16: " 6.78 meters (22'3")(48x15)
13-14: " 6.36 meters (20'10.5")(48x16)
10-12: " 6.00 meters (19'8")(48x17)
The gear limit for a rider is determined by the age of the rider and the discipline, and applies in all events in that discipline - even when other entrants may not have the same (or any) limit.
Note that the gear ratios listed are merely suggestions - the distance rolled out is the governing standard.
2. UCI-legal Bicycles
Staff Comment: In 2004 a rule was passed requiring all riders to have UCI compliant bicycles beginning in 2007. This rule was overturned in 2005 in its original form and was to be replaced by the rule below. Due to an administrative error, the part below was not included in the rulebook. As such, it is now being put back in but with a 2008 start time. The effect is that for all riders 17 and older, bicycles must meet UCI specifications for all National Championships and NRC races. The key requirements for UCI compliance that are not present in our rules are that the bicycle have wheels of the same diameter, that there be a minimum number of spokes for road events, and that the bicycle frame be based on a double triangle design.
1J1(e) As of January 1, 2008, all bicycles used in National Championships (for age 17 and older riders) and NRC races must comply with the current UCI regulations.
1J1(f) Bicycles must meet current UCI technical regulations at events that select 17-18, U23 and elite riders for international competition or national teams.
Staff Comment: This clarifies that the only radio type devices allowed are communication devices with a single earpiece. In other words, iPODs and other entertainment devices are not allowed.
1K3. Non-handheld radios with only one earpiece providing communication with coaches, managers or other riders may be worn or carried by the rider or bicycle only in road events that include category 1,2, or professional riders, except and not in junior races. No earpieces may be worn except as authorized above; audio playback devices are expressly forbidden.
4 Stage Race and Omnium Definition
Staff Comment: This rule change specifies that there can be stage races on points or on time. However the difference between a stage race on points and an omnium is clarified, such that a stage race on points means that all riders must ride all stages to continue and the race must take place on consecutive days.
1A30. A stage race is an event with a common entry, run on consecutive days, comprising a sequence of road races (i.e. individual road races, time trials, criteriums), in which the overall results are determined by cumulative time or points. There are normally individual and team competitions. Riders must successfully complete each stage in order to be eligible for the next one.
1A31. An omnium is a set of races in which riders compete for points in each event and final placings are determined by total points in all events. Riders do not have to participate in each event of the omnium. Different numbers of points may be given in different events. The scoring scheme shall be specified in the official race announcement. The default omnium scheme for track events is specified in rule 2O1.
1L7. In stage races, omniums and race series, the race leader or those heading other categories must wear a special jersey if it is provided by the race organizer, but only for the duration of the race and as long as the leadership lasts. The jersey may bear only the name of the race, the special classification, and the organizer's sponsors on the upper two thirds of the front and back panel of the jersey. The lower third of the front and back panel shall be in a plain background available for the rider's club or UCI Team.
4A1. A stage race is an event with a common entry, run on consecutive days, comprising a sequence of road races (i.e. individual road races, time trials, criteriums), in which the overall results are determined by cumulative time or points. Riders must successfully complete each stage in order to be eligible for the next one. In stage races by time, the sum of the riders' times for each stage determines the final results. In stage races by points, the sum of the riders' points for each stage determines the final results. Stage races shall be conducted in accordance with General Racing and Road Racing rules as modified by specific exceptions given below. The organizers, under the supervision of the Chief Referee, shall prepare a complete set of race regulations (race bible) that specify how each stage will be conducted.
5. Race entry before permit approval and Race announcements
Staff Comment: These rules create possible ramifications for organizers who open registration before a permit has been issued, who publish race announcements, or who make unapproved changes.
1D2. Organizer Responsibilities.
(e) No organizer may open an event to entry, including via the Internet, until the race permit has been applied for and the race announcement approved by an administrator. Penalties may include revocation/denial of the permit, suspension of the organizer, and a fine up to the entire amount of prematurely accepted entry fees.
1E2. The official race announcement must be approved by the administrator before publication [up to $500 penalty for publication without approval], may include the Federation emblem and must contain the following:
1E4. After the official race announcement has been published, no changes are allowed in the classes of riders eligible to compete, other than adding races for separate classes, and the total prize list for any given class may be reduced only if the class is divided and so are the prizes. Other changes in required elements of the official race announcement shall be permitted by the Administrator or Chief Referee only to accommodate changed circumstances beyond the control of the organizer [up to $500 penalty for unapproved changes].
6 Stage race penalties
Staff Comment: This adds the possibility of some alternative penalties in situations when the fines listed in the rulebook may not be appropriate.
(d) The fines listed below in 4H3-18 may be replaced by warnings or lesser penalties (including time penalties); this may be appropriate at events of Category C or lower.
7. Championship eligibility
Staff Comment: These rules clarify and expand eligibility issues such that for the UCI classes (Junior 17-18, U23, and Elite), riders must be US Citizens to participate in all National Championships.
6B1. Championship Eligibility
(b) National Road and Track Championships for Junior 17-18, Under 23, and Elites may be entered only by riders who are USA Citizens or are members in the US Armed Forces.
6D. Junior Championships
6D1. Junior championships are open only to riders with racing ages in the specified ranges and who are USA citizens or permanent residents as shown on their licenses. Only USA Citizens may compete in National Road and Track Championships that are exclusively for the ages of 17 and 18.
8. Masters age groups
Staff Comment: this set of rules is based on the concept that we always will award jerseys and medals in 5 year age groups at Masters Nationals. This was proposed to avoid having to add classes to account for shifting demographics of our members. One rider will constitute a class for the awarding of jerseys and medals. If there are fewer than a prescribed number of starters, then classes may be combined, but awards will be given to each 5-year grouping.
6G1.Masters Championships are open only to riders with racing ages in the specified ranges who are USA citizens or permanent residents as shown on their licenses. Riders with a racing age of 30 and greater, who hold Elite status as defined in rule 1A29, may not enter Masters Championships. The "+" notation means that riders are qualified if their racing age is the one given or older. Medals will be awarded to the finishers of all categories (up to five places) in their respective finishing order.
6G2. Masters National Championships are held for riders in five-year age brackets beginning with 30 years of age. Jerseys and medals will be awarded for any age group represented.
6G3. For massed-start events, any class with fewer than 10 participants may be combined with the next younger age group or groups, and the riders in the different classes scored separately.
6G4. For Masters National Championships riders must ride in their proper five-year age bracket.
6G5. For Masters State Championships, riders may ride with a younger age bracket and the local administrator will determine what the age group breakdown will be.
6G6. State Road Race Championships
State Road Race Championships shall be conducted over the following distances:
|30+ 85-110 km|| ||all 30-80 km|
|35+ 55-100 km|| ||35+ 30-80 km|
|45+ 40-90 km|| ||45+ 30-80 km|
|55+ 40-80 km|| ||55+ 30-80 km|
|60+ 40-80 km|
6G7. National Road Race Championships
(a) Individual Road Races
shall be conducted in five-year age groups over the following distances. Only riders in categories 1-3 are eligible for men's age classes through 54 and for women's age classes through 44.
|30-34 85-115 km|| ||30-34 55-95 km|
|35-39 75-115 km|| ||35-39 55-95 km|
|40-44 60-95 km|| ||40-44 45-80 km|
|45-49 60-95 km|| ||45-49 45-80 km|
|50-54 55-90 km|| ||50-54 45-70 km|
|55-59 55-90 km|| ||55-59 45-70 km|
|60-64 45-80 km|| ||60+ 35-60 km|
|65-69 45-80 km|
|70+ 45-65 km|
6G8. Time Trial Championships
(a) State and National Individual Championships
Shall be conducted for men and women in each five year age group over the following distances:
|30-34 20-40km|| ||30-34 20-40km|
|35-39 20-40km|| ||35-39 20-40km|
|40-44 20-40km|| ||40-44 20-40km|
|45-49 20-40km|| ||45-49 20-40km|
|50-54 20-40km|| ||50-54 20-40km|
|55+ 15-20km|| ||55+ 15-20km|
6GM9. National Criterium Championships
Shall be conducted in five-year age groups over the following distances.
Only riders in categories 1-3 are eligible for men's age classes through 54 and for women's age classes through 44.
|30-34 60 km|| ||30-34 40 km|
|35-39 50 km|| ||35-39 40 km|
|40-44 50 km|| ||40-44 35 km|
|45-49 40 km|| ||45-49 30 km|
|50-54 40 km|| ||50-54 30 km|
|55-59 40 km|| ||55-59 30 km|
|60-64 35 km|| ||60+ 30 km
|65-69 35 km|
|70+ 35 km|
6G10. National Track Championships
Shall be held for men and women in the following events:
A sprint competition will be held for men and women in five-year age groups. Following a round of 200 meter flying start time trials for seeding, the subsequent compositions of the rounds will be determined by USA Cycling based on the number of participants. Any age group with less than 4 riders may be combined with a lower age group. In such a case the awards for the older group will be determined first by their relative results in the finals and next by their results in the 200 meter time trial.
(b) Time Trial
Standing Start Time Trials will be held for men and women in five-year age groups over the following distances and age ranges:
500 m TT (50+) 500 m TT (all)
1 km TT (30-49)
2 km TT (50+) 2 km TT (all)
3 km TT 30-49)
(c) Points Race
Shall be conducted in five-year age groups over the specified distance. Only riders in categories 1-3 may enter for categories younger than age 54. Any age group with less than 10 riders may be combined with a lower age group. In such a case the awards for the older group will be determined by their relative results within the event.
|30-34 30km|| ||30-34 10km|
|35-39 25km|| ||35-39 10km|
|40-44 25km|| ||40-44 10km|
|45-49 20km|| ||45-49 10km|
|50-54 20km|| ||50-54 10km|
|55-59 10km|| ||55+ 10km|
Shall be held for teams of 2 riders each in the following age groups: men 30+ and men 45+ , and only riders in categories 1-3 may enter. Each rider may enter at most one Madison event.
(e) Team Time Trial for four riders over the following distances and age groups: 4 Km - men 30+, men 40+ and men 50+, 3 Km- women 30+. Each rider may enter at most one Team Time Trial event.
(f) Team Sprint of 3 laps for three men whose sum of ages is 100-134 and 135+ 30+, men 40+ and men 50+ and of two laps for two women 70+ 30+, and 45+. Each rider may enter at most one Team Sprint event.
6G11. National Cyclocross Championships shall be conducted for men and women in five year age groups. Different age groups can be run concurrently and scored separately at the discretion of USA Cycling. 30-34, 35-39, 40-44, 45-49, 50-54, 55-59, and 60+, which may be run concurrently; and for women in five year age groups 30-34, 35-39, 40-44, 45-49, and 50+
9. Rider and UCI Team Licensing
Staff Comment: This cleans up a minor licensing issue that arises when a member of a UCI road team leaves the team during the season. The rider' elite status and eligibility for State Championships is the same as if he were still on the team. He is eligible for Elite Road Nationals..
§7. Rider Licensing
7.1 Eligibility. Annual rider licensing is open to applicants who will be at least 10 years old on December 31 of the current year and who reside in the United States. However, a rider who becomes a member of a UCI Men's Road Team must immediately give up his USCF license and is not eligible for a USCF license in the same year. Applicants must submit a completed registration form, proof of age, and the specified licensing fee. Each rider may receive a copy of the Racing Rules as specified in the schedule of fees.
1A29. An Elite rider is one who satisfies any of the following conditions:
a) has a racing age of 23 to 29,
b) has a racing age of 19-22 and is a member of a UCI Pro Team,
c) has a racing age of 30 years or older and is has been a member of any UCI Team at any time in the current year,
d) has a racing age of 30 years or older and has competed in any elite UCI World
Cups, World Championships, Pan American Games, Pan American Championship, or Olympic Games within the current calendar year.
Riders who are classified as an Elite rider per part d) above are classified as such only in the discipline in which they competed.
6B. Championship Eligibility
6B1. Championships are open only to riders who hold USA Cycling rider annual licenses and meet other qualifications stated in these rules.
(a) State championships are open only to USCF, UCI Men's Continental, or UCI Women's Team members who are USA citizens or permanent residents and reside in the state as shown on their licenses. Riders who, at any time in the current year, have been members Members of Men's UCI Pro Teams and Professional Continental Teams may not enter these races.
10. Team-limited races
Staff Comment: Creates the possibility of select races being designated for a limitation on how many riders from a given team may participate.
1D6 Team-limited Races. USA Cycling may designate a race as team-limited. At such events USA Cycling may specify an upper limit on the number of entries to be accepted from any club or team. This applies whether entry is on an individual or team basis. This information should be included in the official race announcement.
11. Officials' age
Staff Comment: This clarifies that officials who are minors are welcome to officiate and hold officials licenses, but they should not be in a position of authority, such as referee or a chief position.
1I12 Minimum Age for Referees Officials
An official who is a minor may not perform the function of a referee, Registrar or Chief Judge/Timer.
12. Definition of mass start bicycle
1J1(g) A mass start bicycle is a road or track bicycle that is legal in all events within the road or track discipline, rather than a bicycle that is restricted to particular events. As an example, a bicycle with handlebars offering forearm support is not a mass start bicycle.
13. Sprint no-shows
Staff Comment: This deals with an issue very common at some track nationals, which is riders disappearing from events run in bracketed heats. This specifies that riders who do not show up for one of their heats are eliminated from the competition at that point except in exceptional circumstances.
2F10. No-shows. If one rider in a two-up heat fails to appear, that rider loses the sprint and the other rider must put in an appearance on the starting line in order to be declared the winner, but need not cover the distance. Any rider not showing for a heat is eliminated except in special circumstances as determined by the Chief Referee.
14. Caravan/feeding/Time Trial Vehicle fixes
Staff Comment: This section just cleans up some inconsistencies in our rules compared to common practice.
(a) Only officially authorized vehicles may follow races on the road and each such vehicle shall bear distinctive identification, visible from both front and rear. The composition and structure of the race caravan must be approved by the Chief Referee and all vehicles shall operate under the officials' control [failure to follow instructions or actions detrimental to the race may result in penalties against riders, personnel of the support vehicle, or both].
(b) Each vehicle in the race caravan should have an official on board, who Each official in the caravan shall submit to the Chief Referee, at the end of the race, a written report detailing observed infractions of rules. Support vehicles shall take a position behind the field in order to assist the riders in case of a mishap.
(c) The organizer shall appoint a technical director to coordinate technical support and shall provide a sag wagon.
(d) Drivers of support vehicles shall keep to the right of the road and shall follow the rules of the road. Should a support vehicle need to stop, it shall always pull off the road on the right side.
(e) Riders may be assisted only at standstill at the rear of the group, regardless of the rider's position in the race. No rider may be assisted at the front of a group [relegation or disqualification].
(f) Riders may accept help from third parties in effecting repairs and may also, should their bicycle be damaged by other than by a puncture, borrow the bicycle of any cyclist encountered provided that the borrowed bicycle meets Federation standards.
(g) Caravan vehicles may pass a referee's vehicle only with the permission of the referee.
(h) In the case of a breakaway, a support vehicle may drop in between the breakaway riders and the main group only with the permission of a referee.
(i) Once the sign indicating the final 10 km has been passed, no support vehicle shall be permitted to pass the field or the breakaway riders. They may deal with legitimate mishaps, but may not move up to communicate with riders [relegation of rider(s)].
(a) Riders may be supplied with food or drink in either of two ways, as planned jointly by the organizer and Chief Referee:
(1) In specified feed zones by hand-ups from the organizer's staff or the rider's support staff;
(2) From support vehicles during the race.
The first feed zone Feeding will normally be between 30 and begin 50 km from the start. , This may be modified depending on the nature of the course and the weather. , and f Feeding shall be authorized thereafter except for the last 30 20 km.
(b) Feeding from support vehicles may be done only after receiving permission from a referee and shall be effected by riders dropping to the back of the group to take supplies from the team's following vehicle, but the vehicle itself shall not come closer than 20 meters behind the group
When a referee grants permission to feed from cars, the procedure is for riders to slowly move to a position even with their team car to receive food and drink. The team car must be positioned behind the referee's car unless the group contains 15 riders or less; in that case, with the permission of the referee, the team car may move up to the rear of the group to feed. No supplies may be provided or sought from a vehicle during a hill climb or on dangerous bends or descents.
3E7. Support Vehicles.
(a) If support vehicles are used, each vehicle should contain an official. A bullhorn may be used to communicate with the rider. Support vehicles shall at all times remain at least 20 10 meters behind the rider, except when the rider has a foot on the ground. A support vehicle may not take a position between two riders unless there is a distance of at least 50 meters between them. Should this distance diminish, the vehicle supporting the leading rider shall immediately drop back behind the follower.
TTT support vehicle distance
3F12. Support Vehicles
(b) Support vehicles shall not be allowed to drive in front of or beside its team but must remain at least 20 10 meters (65 feet) behind the third rider and must not pass the fourth rider until there is a 75 meter gap between the third and fourth riders, or until the referee decides that it is safe.
15. Cyclocross obstacles
Staff Comment: This is not a rule change, but rather adds some explanation to rule changes made the last two years.
5A11. Races which are not UCI events, national championships, or used to qualify riders for national teams or international competition may have two additional sets of temporary artificial barriers (3 total). The barriers must meet the specifications in 5A10 and the total number of obstacles may not exceed 6. The addition of additional temporary barriers should be done only in unusual circumstances (e.g. local tradition at a particular event or the lack of suitable terrain);
16. Championship call-ups
6A7. In National Championship events, the defending National Champion (in that event) shall be given highest priority in call-ups even if the event is otherwise run under UCI rules.
17. Nationals courses
Staff Comment: The board felt that courses for young juniors should consider safety above all else, and that a closed course is important, even if that means using a smaller circuit.
6A1. The rights to organize National Championships may be awarded to local organizers who meet the requirements established by the Executive Director.
6A2. Courses proposed for National Road Championships shall have the
characteristics given in the Racing Rules for each event and in addition shall be in excellent repair and be closed to traffic except for vehicles authorized by the officials. In particular:
(a) Road races are to be held on selective circuits, accessible to spectators, and which contain climbing, descending, and flat sections, but with few sharp or difficult turns. The climbs may be of fairly steep gradients;
(b) Individual and team time trials are to be held on relatively flat courses that have no sharp turns; and,
(c) Criteriums are to be held on relatively flat circuits from 1-3 km in length in an urban location readily accessible to spectators.
(d) Junior 10-14 Championship courses must be closed to traffic.
18. International licenses not required
6B1. Championships are open only to riders who hold USA Cycling rider annual licenses and meet other qualifications stated in these rules. International licenses are not required to compete in USCF National Championships.
19. Nationals qualification
Staff Comment: This rule adds a layer of flexibility to qualification guidelines for Junior Nationals.
6D2 The Executive director may publish qualification standards for Junior National Championships. Such standards may be in addition to the current category requirements or may replace them.
20. Junior omnium clarification
Stafff Comment: Last year legislation was adopted requiring that the final omnium results include people who did not earn omnium points (top 4). This clarifies the legislation and requires riders to compete in all the events to be placed without earning omnium points.
6D6. State or Regional and National Track Championships may be conducted for each of the following classes where regions are defined by the Executive Director. Competition in classes under 17 shall be conducted as omniums. Final omnium placings standings shall include those riders who finish compete in all events but do not earn event points. Such riders shall be placed according to their finish in a designated event (generally the last event). The winner of each omnium is the Track Champion for that age group. The winner of the National Omnium is awarded the National Championship jersey. Medals will be awarded to the top three finishers in each individual Track National Championship event, but they will not be designated as National Champions nor receive a jersey. Each individual event for riders in the 17-18 age group is a national championship, with the awarding of a championship jersey and medals to the top five places.
Races that restrict entry based on category are noted in parenthesis below:
21. Junior Cyclocross groups
Staff Comment: This expands the junior women's age groups to be the same as the junior men for the CX championships.
6D8. National Cyclocross Championships shall be conducted for men 10-12, 13-14, 15-16, and 17-18, which may be run concurrently, and for women 10-14 and 15-18, 10-12, 13-14, 15-16, and 17-18, which may be run concurrently.
22. CX Championship categories
Staff Comment: Now that we have CX categories, this establishes the minimum category for participation in CX national championships. This will take effect in 2007, not at the 2006 National Championships.
6F8. National Cyclocross Championships shall be conducted for Elite men (cat 1-2) and Elite women (cat 1-3).
23. Masters eligibility
Staff Comment: This clarifies that only masters can compete at masters championships. This may seem obvious, but some of the masters events are based on a sum of ages calculation for teams. This makes it clear that while the sum of ages must be correct, everyone on the team must also be a master.
6G. Masters Championships
6G1. Masters Championships are open only to Masters riders with racing ages in the specified ranges who are USA citizens or permanent residents as shown on their licenses. Riders with a racing age of 30 and greater, who hold Elite status as defined in rule 1A29, may not enter Masters Championships. The "+" notation means that riders are qualified if their racing age is the one given or older. Medals will be awarded to the finishers of all categories (up to five places) in their respective finishing order.
24. Athlete Trustee elections
Staff Comment: This change in election procedures for the athlete trustees cleans up a potentially confusing process and clarifies how ties might be handled.
3.1.1 Sectional Trustees.
220.127.116.11 Sectional Trustee candidates may be nominated by affiliated clubs, by petition of five members of the Federation, or by a nominating committee of the Board of Trustees.
18.104.22.168 One Trustee shall be elected from each Section each year and shall serve a three year term.
3.1.2 Athlete Trustees. The Federation's Athlete Director shall also serve as an Athlete Trustee. In addition, one woman and one man, shall be elected as Athlete Trustees in years that are evenly divisible by four and shall serve a four year term. Candidates must be qualified to serve as Athlete Trustees under USA Cycling Bylaws. Only members who are Eligible Athletes by virtue of membership in this Federation may nominate candidates or vote in Athlete Trustee elections and electors may vote only for candidates of their own sex.
3.1.2 Athlete Trustees. In years evenly divisible by four, the USCF eligible athletes will elect three athlete trustees, who shall serve four year terms. The athlete who receives the most votes will also be elected as the USCF Athlete Director on the USAC Board of Directors. Of the three athlete trustees, at least one male trustee and one female trustee must be elected. If the top three candidates who receive the most votes are all of the same gender, then the third place candidate will not be elected and that spot will be filled by candidate of the opposite gender who received the highest number of votes. Candidates must be qualified to serve as Athlete Trustees under USA Cycling Bylaws. Only members who are Eligible Athletes by virtue of membership in this Federation may nominate candidates or vote in Athlete Trustee elections.
Voters may choose up to three candidates, and shall rank their choices by order of preference (1st choice, etc.). The criteria for breaking ties in voting shall be the number of 1st choice votes, then 2nd choice votes, and finally by lot.
25. Nomination/election schedule
Staff Comment: Beginning with the 2007 elections, the election schedule has been moved earlier by one month and the nomination period has been moved closer to the beginning of the elections.
3.2 Sectional and Athlete Trustee Election Schedule.
3.2.1 Nomination notices shall be published no later than May 1 of each year. All nomination petitions and signed acceptances thereof must be sent to Federation headquarters no later than June 1 July 1st.
3.2.2 No later than August July 15th, ballots shall be available online through member accounts at a website designated by USAC to all current members persons who were members as of August 1st. Ballots will also be available by August July 15th to be mailed to all such members upon request. Candidate statements will be posted on the USA Cycling website by August July 15th. Ballots must be received by September August 15th.
3.2.3 Trustees shall take office at the first meeting of the Board following the USCF annual meeting.
26. Stage Race final Km marking
Staff Comment: Last year we guessed that the UCI would move the red flag out to 3 K given that is now the point where riders are compensated for mishaps so that a flag at 1 Km no longer serves any purpose. We were wrong. The UCI is maintaining the flag at 1 K because it is traditional.
4E. Special Procedures
(b) Signs marking the distance to go shall be placed at 10, 5, 3, and 1 Km from the finish line or timer's post, and the 3 1 Km sign shall be marked with a red flare or red flag.